Análisis de la respuesta resiliente de los sectores industriales españoles entre 2008 y 2014

Jesús Manuel Plaza Llorente


En la medida en que han desarrollado perfiles de resiliencia, los sectores industriales españoles han hecho frente mejor a la crisis económica y financiera 2008-2014. Este hecho, les ha permitido asimilar primero el impacto de la crisis y desarrollar después estrategias adaptativas de respuesta. Los resultados de esta investigación apuntan que, para la orientación de las políticas industrial y de empresa, la experiencia de estos años de crisis resalta la importancia del capital humano, junto con el esfuerzo para mantener operativa la capacidad productiva y comercial de las empresas, como soportes últimos de la resiliencia de los sectores industriales.

Palabras clave: resiliencia, sectores industriales, estrategias adaptativas.

The resilient behavior of Spanish industrial sectors (2008-2014): an empirical analysis

Abstract: As a consequence of the economic and financial crisis during 2008 and 2014, this paper shows how the Spanish industrial sectors had developed some resilient profiles to tackle the former impact of crisis and react through adaptive strategies. The gain of experience in the period reveals some learning to approach industrial and enterprise policies. The qualification and numbers of human capital, together some efforts to support equipment and marketing operative capacities of firms, are bastions to build Resilience in industrial sectors, as demonstrate an empirical multivariable regression model tested in this article.  The measure of Resilience deserves three main approaches into scholar literature. The first, Preventive, reflects how vulnerable is the economic or industrial system, to detail which conditions and intensity of them are possible without any permanent deterioration. Second, Positive, allows a better understanding of behavior of system into a risky or handicapped situations, before it reaches limits of collapse. Finally, a third approach focus on capacities for assessment and evaluation of systems and benchmark, to identify knowledge and learning elements under schemes of Better Practices and Success Cases. Under a model of lineal multivariable regression had been calculated 12 functions of Resilience (Dependent variable) for other 12 industrial sectors, based on aggregations and data (2008-2014) of National Statistics Office (INE). The robustness of model had been tested at 1% of confidence level, without significant lineal dependence between independent (regressor) variables (drivers of Resilience), measured through Durbin-Watson´s Coefficient values. According results, a 42% of sectors had a Resilience level upper average (Mean) combined with a low volatility (Standard Deviation). In this group were Chemical & Pharmaceuticals, Food & Drinks, Rubber & Plastics, Motor and Diverse Manufacturing, sectors. The main drivers of this resilient behavior were a stable level of R&D investment and Purchases into EU. A 16% of sectors (Extractive Industries and Metals) also shown a resilient profile but volatile (SD upper average), based on Human Capital, a stable effort in R&D investment and Sales into EU. Finally, other 42% of sectors (Textile, Machinery, Wood, Electric & Electronics and No metals industries) were less resilient, based on Human Capital and their capacity to sell into EU. The results of this work continue a promissory field of research on how to build Resilience, how to increase the role of drivers that provide Resilience into economic and industrial systems and a better understanding on how manage it, nevertheless undesired impacts. The measure of risks and how vulnerability of systems can be afford, based on their own capacities to induce first resilience and recovery after, should be completed with a deeper search of mechanisms to operate into the black box of systems and which tools would be used by industrial and enterprise policies, to sure a faster transit from troubled situations into a recovery and new friendly scenarios for new jobs, confidence and inclusive growth.

Key words: resilience, industrial sectors, adaptive strategies.

Palabras clave

resiliencia; sectores industriales; estrategias adaptativas

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