Determinantes de la cadena de valor y la gestión de la innovación en el sector metalmecánico en Costa Rica

Rafael Herrera-González, Ariela Quesada


El ambiente competitivo interno y externo al que se enfrentan las empresas, presenta una serie de retos, que las obliga a establecer estrategias que incorporen capacidades de innovación, y de gestión de la cadena de valor, con el objetivo de establecer mecanismos que les permita diferenciarse en el mercado por medio de la productividad y la agregación de valor como fuente para la competitividad y la sostenibilidad. Para identificar aspectos relevantes de la cadena de valor y la gestión de la innovación en el sector metalmecánico, se elaboró una propuesta de índice de cadena de valor a fin de identificar las variables que tienen mayor peso en el proceso, y un modelo econométrico para analizar que variables de gestión de la innovación influyen en el índice propuesto.

Palabras Clave: Cadena de valor, gestión de la innovación, innovación.

Determinants of the value chain and innovation management in the metal-mechanic sector in Costa Rica

Abstract: The internal and external competitive environment facing all organizations, especially those which are productive, it imposes a number of challenges, against which must take strategies that incorporate innovative capabilities, and the management of the value chain and innovation, to establish mechanisms that allow them to differentiate themselves in the market by adding value as a source for the competitiveness and sustainability. In Costa Rica this is an issue that has gradually gained importance and for certain sectors is essential today. In order to identify relevant aspects of the value chain and innovation management in the metal-mechanic sector in the country, a study was conducted that allowed further develop a proposed index of the value chain to present the variables that have greater weight in the process among which were considered: communication for innovation, innovation, performance, competitive environment, marketing, sales, supplies and ICT. This study was made possible after the application of an online survey of companies in this sector. Also, from the information obtained, an econometric model was developed that allowed us to know which variables related to innovation management in the company influence the rate of innovation in the value chain. Variables significant at the 5% correspond to seek business opportunities in the weaknesses of competitors (OCC) and creating new products or services (CNPoS) and the creation of new products or services (CNPoS) and modifying existing product or service (MPoSE).The econometric estimation reaffirms the importance of innovation in companies, and how this should be reflected in the development of their development strategies. The results confirm the relevance of the size of the company, this means that a smaller size, its capacity for innovation tends to decline, a situation that is repeated in the value chain indices. From this perspective it is relevant that the bodies responsible for setting policies and implement programs to concentrate their efforts on providing small and medium enterprises to improve their capacity for innovation in the value chain of the company. Those companies that have experience as exporters tend to have better results in innovation and its value chain indices. The deal with the challenges posed by new market forces companies to adapt their strategies to compete. In this regard, companies should make greater efforts to explore new markets, as this is an element or factor that promotes innovation. One aspect to which you must give attention is the low average rating in the value chain for business-university relationship, marked by a lack of communication between business and academic bodies along with little innovation projects so joint. Sectoral studies on the management of innovation and value chain, results in a set of data and assessments for countries in transition to an economy based on innovation should be considered in setting policies and especially in developing financial and technical instruments to promote innovation and adding value.

Keywords: Value chain, innovation management, innovation.

Palabras clave

Cadena de valor; gestión de la innovación; innovación

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