Una revisión de las Tablas de Suplementos de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo

Sofía Estellés-Miguel, Marta E. Palmer-Gato, José M. Albarracín-Guillem, Carlos Andrés-Romano

Resumen


Dentro de los estudios de Métodos y Tiempos, el cálculo de los coeficientes de fatiga es un aspecto fundamental por su impacto en la definición de los estándares de trabajo. Sin embargo, no hay un criterio universal al respecto ya que incluso la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) no llega nunca a definir una norma, sino que plantea unas recomendaciones de manera didáctica para que sean usadas por las par tes afectadas si así lo consideran oportuno. En este trabajo se presentan el resultado de un análisis de estos criterios desarrollados en colaboración con la Comisión Técnica de Organización del Trabajo del Tribunal de Arbitraje Laboral de la Comunidad Valenciana realizado a par tir de las tablas de suplementos existentes para su uso de manera interna en los procesos de arbitraje en los que participa la comisión.

Palabras claves: organización internacional del trabajo (OIT), estudio de métodos y tiempos, suplementos por fatiga.


Time allowances of International Labour Organization: a review

Abstract: Time study can be defined as the application of a scientific method of determining process times using data collection and statistical analysis. The times that are calculated through a scientific study are used for various initiatives such as establishing accurate productivity goals, compiling objective data that compares automation/methods, identifying non-value-added time percentages, determining current staff utilization and identifying oppor tunities, quantifying gains through layout and/or method changes and reducing labor costs. Time study can be divided in some phases: element definition, rating and time measurement, base time determination, allowance definition and, finally, standard time definition. All of them have to be done carefully using a scientific approach because they involve human judgment. This is the reason because it is necessary to establish some criteria or rules to avoid subjective reasoning in these phases. This paper focuses in allowance definition. This is the process when a factor is defined to take into account the time for personal needs and fatigue in order to represent the time every worker must use to make the operation. The time factor is added to the calculated normal time to incorporate acceptable allowance for personal breaks and diminishing pace of work throughout a shift depending on the work being performed. Thus, in time studies, it is necessary to know appropriate allowances to allow people to recover from fatigue produced when they are in an environment that affects the way they work. Some practitioners determine allowances using careful and extensive studies taken on the job under regular working conditions. Other people prefer make agreements between management and labor. The authors’ experience is few factories can achieve an extensive study to define allowances, so they prefer to make agreements using previous results or some criteria taken from the literature. Unfortunately, there are no a universal criteria to establish personal allowances. Even International Labour Organization (ILO), doesn’t establish a universal rule. Instead of this, ILO suggests recommendations that can be used by the practitioners to define standard times. However, some times is difficult to adapt some of the ILO recommendations to Spanish industries. This is the reason a research was done to adapt some allowances from ILO to Spanish factories. The paper presents the results of the analysis that was performed in collaboration with the «Comisión Técnica de Organización del Trabajo del Tribunal de Arbitraje Laboral» at Valencian Community (spain). A set of criteria have been established based in ILO suggestions and other results taken from the literature. We will show some results about how these standard criteria are being used in time studies by the arbitration committee at valencian region.

Key words: International Labour Organization (ILO), time and motion study, fatigue allowance.

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