Optimización de la demanda de calefacción y análisis del coste del ciclo de vida de los edificios

Pablo Aparicio-Ruiz, José Guadix-Martín, Luis Onieva-Giménez, María Rodríguez-Palero

Resumen


El objetivo de este estudio se centra en optimizar el coste del ciclo de vida de un edificio con el menor consumo de demanda energética, centrado en la demanda de calefacción. El estudio pretende mejorar la calidad ambiental y energética en los edificios. El objetivo es establecer una metodología de optimización de la envolvente o epidermis de un edificio y de los elementos activos que la conforman, para estudiar el consumo energético y el ahorro correspondiente, considerando el impacto medioambiental y el coste de este. La aplicación de una heurística tabú permite agilizar el tiempo de resolución del problema.

Palabras clave: optimización, demanda calefacción, coste ciclo vida, eficiencia energética, tabú.


Optimization of the heating demand and the life-cycle cost analysis for buildings

Abstract: The main contribution of the developed system is that it provides a tool for the architects to select optimal materials from an array of possibilities for different buildings elements and also to estimate the conceptual cost for the buildings element in the early stage of building design. This study focuses on optimizing the life cycle cost of a building with the lowest consumption of energy demand, focusing on heating demand, because in the buildings are affected in a greater proportion by the heating demand. The study purposes to improve environmental quality and energy in buildings. The aim is to establish a methodology for optimizing epidermal or hull a building and active elements that comprise it, to study the energy consumption and corresponding savings, considering the environmental impact and cost. Actually, in the construction sector, builders and architects are now required to build and design homes that are validate by two programs: LIDER is a tool for the calculation of the energy demand of a building, and CALENER is a tool for the energy rating to fulfill their obligations when implementing 2002/91/CE Directive. The processes of calculation in these tools are slow, although rigorous. However, these tools are used for calculating a building with specific building materials; therefore, these tools do not help in the optimal selection of materials. Due to these tools need a lot of time to calculate, all proposals for changes that will be studied, cases will be calculated by simplified methods for the calculate of heating demand. In addition, the methodology allows the modification of the construction elements of the epidermis, using a new and innovative process which helps decision making. This process is based on an energy model of the building, and by applying the metaheuristic Tabu Search, it is now possible select and change construction elements in a defined geometry quickly. The calculation algorithm contains a model of multi-objective optimization based on tabu search for optimizing design building elements that minimize the life cycle cost and heating demand. The model was applied in buildings located in Madrid (Spain). There have been optimal solutions of buildings, which show marked improvements both for optimal life cycle cost, as for the minimun heating demand with initial life cycle cost. Detached house were obtained between 3% and 10% savings in heating demand, while for blocks of flats improvements were obtained between 19% and 41%, for this type, clearly is possible to reduce the energy rating. It should be noted that the simplified model is a conservative model, so we can ensure that energy rating of the corresponding buildings heating demand will be at least as indicated in the solution of our process.

Keywords: optimization, heating demand, life cycle cost, energy efficiency, tabu.

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