Mejora de un Sistema de Producción por Proyectos basada en la metodología GRAI: un estudio empírico

Ander Errasti Opacua, Sandra Martínez Miguélez, Raúl Poler Escoto, Mikel Arcelus

Resumen


Este trabajo explora cómo la metodología GRAI puede ayudar al rediseño de los procesos logísticos operativos internos y externos, para la mejora del rendimiento de la cadena de suministro de un sistema de producción por proyectos. Para evaluar el método propuesto, se recoge la experimentación desarrollada en una cadena de suministro desde el punto de vista del fabricante principal y las conclusiones que se derivan de los resultados alcanzados.

Palabras clave: producción por proyectos, metodología GRAI, DGRAI y sistema decisional.


Framework for assessing the current strategic factory role and deploying an upgrading roadmap. An empirical study within a global operations network

Abstract: Companies survive in saturated markets while attempting to become more productive and efficient. In this study, we assert that competition between companies is not fully understood when the company operates in isolation. For a comprehensive understanding, it is necessary to focus on all relevant factors between supply chains. There is a need for significant involvement and commitment by all chain components in a joint project whose goal is to achieve customer satisfaction. The aim should be to seek out the benefits of the entire chain, and from this to realize the individual benefits of each of the links. Additionally the coordination mechanisms of the supply chain should take into account the particularities of the manufacturing field they are working in. In «Build to Order» and «Engineer to Order» production systems, there is a need to coordinate the decision making protocols to ensure fluid production amongst the internal functions of engineering, procurement, production and logistics as well as with external suppliers. GRAI modelling and associated techniques (GRAI grid, DGRAI) may be helpful when facing a reengineering project involving the integration of a production system for projects to improve the performance of the supply chain. For an analysis of the planning, production and procurement supply chain system both internally and externally, we monitored the decision making system using GRAI grid utilizing both «As Is» and «To Be» scenarios. The GRAI grid shows the main characteristics of the decision system (decision levels, decision centres, planning periods, planning frequency, decision alternatives, information, etc.). The company has implemented a planning, production and procurement system which is «made to order» based on the firms needs. This system is called «S +5» because orders in the week S are supplied by the sixth week called S+5:5. The planning system has a period of one week and a planning horizon of six weeks. Then, the analysis and the future design of the planning, production and procurement system is developed around the planning horizon and the production master plan. In par ticular it analyzes the planning system «D +20:2» with a planning horizon of 20 days and a planning period of two days. This paper explores how the GRAI methodology can help to redesign internal and external logistics operational processes, in order to improve the supply chain performance of production systems projects. In order to evaluate the proposed method, data is collected at the developed experimentation in a supply chain from the viewpoint of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), specifically is this study, with an elevator company. Some of the conclusions derived from the achieved results include. The simulation showed that the «D +20:2» required a 40% increase in human resource hours dedicated to the decisions making of the «S +5:5».
  • 40% reduction in delivery time and 50% in the percentage of complete orders.
  • 40% reduction in the current stock.
  • 60% stock reduction for suppliers of JIT supply modules.
  • 20% stock increase for made to order suppliers.
  • 30% stock reduction in make to stock suppliers.
  • The empirical study shows that the modelling techniques incorporated in this study have potential applicability.

Key words: project management, GRAI methodology, DGRAI and decisional system.

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