Herramientas para la gestión de riesgos en cadenas de suministro: una revisión de la literatura

Alina Díaz Curbelo, Ángel Manuel Gento Municio, Fernando Marrero Delgado

Resumen


El incremento de las cadenas de suministro globales, a pesar de sus grandes beneficios, las convierte en más vulnerables y con mayores niveles de riesgo. En este artículo se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre los métodos utilizados para la Gestión de Riesgos de Cadenas de Suministro, tanto cualitativos como cuantitativos, centrados en alguna fase del ciclo de gestión de riesgos y en el ciclo completo (identificación, evaluación, mitigación, seguimiento), así como los principales campos de aplicación. Por último, se identifican nuevas oportunidades y retos como líneas futuras de investigación.

Palabras clave: Gestión de riesgos, gestión de la cadena de suministro, revisión de la literatura, métodos cuantitativos.


Tools for risk management in supply chains: a review of literature

Abstract: The increase in global supply chains is associated with increased interconnection between suppliers and manufacturers, leading to greater dependence between supply chain companies and a greater level of complexity. So, in spite of its great benefits, it makes them more vulnerable and with higher levels of risk. These risks must therefore be adequately identified and evaluated in order to carry out effective risk management to take the necessary measures to mitigate them. Risk management must be an ongoing process that helps the implementation of a company's strategy. We must methodically address all the risks associated with the activities that frame the company in the supply chains and provide the level of risk in the organization. In this sense, the objective of this article is to identify the main quantitative methods for the management of risks in supply chains through a systematic review of the literature based on a research methodology to that effect. This analysis has identified the main qualitative / quantitative, simple / integrated methods that have been used in the corresponding stages of the risk management cycle (identification, assessment, mitigation, monitoring) as well as the main areas of application. As a result, the most explored stage has been the risk assessment and in particular the evaluation of the risk of supply. As far as applications are concerned, manufacturing supply chains have attracted more attention, while service supply chains are still little explored. Finally, new opportunities and challenges are identified as future lines of research.

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